You can take the Tanque Ridge Trail all the way to Tanque Verde Peak. That distance is about 8.5 miles one way. This trail is steep, and the starting elevation is about 3,000 ft. Tanque Verde Peak is 7,000 ft or so, so you can see that there will be much gain in those 8 miles.
You can also take this trail just to Juniper Basin where there is good designated camping. That distance is about 6.2 miles one way with about 3,500 feet of climbing.
If you'd like to take the trail to it's terminus, you'll find yourself at the Cow Head Saddle, nearly 11 miles in. If you've made it this far, you'll have the option to connect to a variety of other trails, or return the way that you came.
Depending on season, there may be water about half a mile before reaching Juniper Basin Camp. Juniper Basin Camp also may have water. On the way to Tanque Verde Peak, there may be water down in some gullies where you may find potholes. Some parts of the trail may get lost if you don't pay attention, especially if you are not a savvy route finder. Don't lose the cairns. You can use the Hiking Project mobile app
to make sure you don't get lost.